In India, our respondents were non-English speakers and avid smartphone users, living in semi and peri-urban regions and working as drivers on taxi-hailing platforms, security guards, domestic workers, sex workers, street vendors or owned small businesses. Data was collected in Delhi, Bihar, Hyderabad, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Goa and West Bengal. For many respondents, online activity seemed to be enhanced with knowledge of English. The combination of both English and the mobile phone represent a form of upward mobility.

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